坏消息 - 冠状病毒SARS-COV-2感染肠细胞并在那里乘以

感染冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2的肠道类器官

肠道类器官,右图感染了冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2。冠状病毒是白色的,而类器官本身是蓝色和绿色的。作者:Joep Beumer, Hubrecht institute版权所有

来自乌得勒支Hubrecht研究所、鹿特丹伊拉斯谟大学医学中心和荷兰马斯特里赫特大学的研究人员发现了冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2,这导致新型冠状病毒肺炎,可以感染肠道细胞并在那里繁殖。利用最先进的人体肠道细胞培养模型,研究人员成功地繁殖了病毒在体外监测细胞对病毒的反应,为研究COVID-19提供了新的细胞培养模型。这些发现可以解释,大约三分之一的COVID-19患者出现腹泻等胃肠道症状,以及病毒往往可以在粪便样本中检测到的事实。这项研究的结果发表在科学杂志上科学在12020年5月。

COVID-19患者表现出与呼吸器官相关的各种症状,如咳嗽、打喷嚏、气短和发烧,疾病通过主要通过咳嗽和打喷嚏传播的微小飞沫传播。然而,三分之一的患者也有胃肠道症状,如恶心和腹泻。此外,在呼吸道症状消失后很长一段时间,人类粪便中仍可检测到病毒。这表明该病毒也可以通过所谓的“粪-口传播”传播。

冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2肠道细胞

放大后的电子显微镜图像显示肠道细胞边缘的冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2(黑圈)的肠绒毛。资料来源:Kèvin Knoops, raymond Ravelli和Maaike de Backer,版权所有:马斯特里赫特大学

虽然呼吸器官和胃肠器官看起来很不同,但有一些关键的相似之处。一个特别有趣的相似之处是ACE2受体的存在,导致SARS-CoV-2的COVID-19病毒可以通过该受体进入细胞。肠内充满了ACE2受体。然而,直到现在还不知道肠道细胞是否真的会被感染并产生病毒颗粒。

肠道瀑样

来自Hubrecht研究所、Erasmus MC和Maastricht大学的研究人员着手确定SARS-CoV-2病毒是否可以直接感染肠道细胞,如果可以,它是否可以在那里复制。他们使用了人体肠道类器官:可以在实验室中生长的微型人体肠道。Hans Clevers (Hubrecht研究所):“这些类器官包含人类肠道内壁细胞,使它们成为研究SARS-CoV-2感染的令人信服的模型。”

肠细胞感染

当研究人员将病毒添加到类器官中时,它们很快就被感染了。病毒进入肠道类器官细胞的一个子集,被感染的细胞数量随着时间的推移而增加。利用电子显微镜,这是一种能详细观察细胞不同成分的先进方法,研究人员在类器官细胞的内部和外部发现了病毒颗粒。彼得·彼得斯(马斯特里赫特大学):“由于封锁,我们都在家远程研究了受感染的器官的虚拟幻灯片。”

感染冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2的肠道类器官

感染冠状病毒SARS-CoV-2的肠道器官。冠状病毒是白色的,而类器官本身是蓝色和绿色的。作者:Joep Beumer,版权:Hubrecht Institute

研究人员研究了肠道细胞对病毒的反应核糖核酸测序,一种研究细胞中哪些基因活跃的方法。这揭示了所谓的干扰素刺激基因被激活。已知这些基因可以对抗病毒感染。未来的工作将更仔细地关注这些基因,以及如何利用它们开发新的治疗方法。

研究人员还在不同的条件下培养了可以产生ACE2受体水平较高或较低的细胞的类器官,SARS-CoV-2可以通过ACE2受体进入细胞。令他们惊讶的是,他们发现病毒感染的细胞中含有高水平和低水平的ACE2受体。最终,这些研究可能会导致阻止病毒进入我们细胞的新方法。

影响

Bart Haagmans(伊拉斯谟MC):“这项研究的观察结果为SARS-CoV-2可以在胃肠道细胞中繁殖提供了明确的证据。然而,我们尚不清楚存在于COVID-19患者肠道中的SARS-CoV-2是否在传播中发挥了重要作用。我们的研究结果表明,我们应该更密切地研究这种可能性。”目前的研究与最近的其他研究一致,这些研究发现了很大一部分COVID-19患者的胃肠道症状和无呼吸道症状患者的粪便中有病毒。有胃肠道症状的患者可能需要特别注意。因此,可能需要更广泛的测试,不仅使用鼻和喉拭子,也使用直肠拭子或粪便样本。

与此同时,研究人员正在继续合作,以更多地了解COVID-19。他们正在比较感染SARS-CoV-2的肺部和肠道器官,研究肺部和肠道感染的差异。

参考:“SARS-CoV-2有效感染人类肠道肠上皮细胞”集市m·拉默斯先生•Beumer,本世纪范德法特,凯文•努Jens Puschhof蒂姆•i Breugem Raimond伞齿轮Ravelli,保罗·范·Schayck安娜z Mykytyn,汉斯Duimel,艾莉·范·Donselaar Riesebosch,谋求Helma J.H. Kuijpers,黛比Schipper Willine j·凡德维特灵Miranda de Graaf, Marion Koopmans, Edwin Cuppen, Peter J. Peters, Bart L. Haagmans and Hans Clevers, 2020年5月1日,科学
DOI: 10.1126 / science.abc1669

这项研究是由乌得勒支的Hubrecht研究所、鹿特丹伊拉斯谟大学医学中心、马斯特里赫特大学、乌得勒支大学和荷兰单细胞发现合作完成的。显微镜数据可通过图像数据资源公开获得(idr0083 -在邓迪大学和欧洲生物信息学研究所的帮助下),基因组数据可通过基因表达Omnibus公开获得(GSE149312)。确保世界各地研究人员之间有效共享与COVID-19相关的数据。

Hans Clevers是Hubrecht研究所和公主Máxima儿童肿瘤学中心的首席研究员,乌得勒支大学和乌得勒支大学的分子遗传学教授,Oncode研究员。

巴特·哈格曼斯(Bart Haagmans)是鹿特丹伊拉斯谟大学医学中心病毒科学系的首席研究员。

Peter Peters,马斯特里赫特多模态分子成像研究所(M4i)主任和首席研究员,马斯特里赫特大学和马斯特里赫特大学医学中心纳米生物学教授。yabo124

10评论在“坏消息 - 冠状病毒SARS-COV-2感染了肠道细胞并乘以”

  1. 这些肠道类器官含有肠道细菌吗?

  2. 是的,它确实含有细菌,但这与病毒攻击肠壁上皮细胞无关。我没有看到任何迹象表明微生物改变了病毒的结合。

  3. 这是如何“接种”(不是真正的疫苗)对抗COVID-19吗?如果感染从肠道开始(无论是被摄入还是通过另一端传入),这让你的免疫系统在它进入呼吸道之前就开始识别和抗击它。它可能不舒服,但不像在你的肺里它听起来不像是致命的,所以也许这是一种给人们保护性免疫力的方法,可以持续几年直到我们想出另一种不那么不舒服的疫苗接种方法?

  4. 我绝对肯定我的肠子里有这种病毒!长话短说!3月12日星期四去杂货店买东西!一个排队的女士在跟我说话我真的感觉到她的呼吸进入了我的喉咙。没有打喷嚏,没有咳嗽,只有呼吸!两周后的一天,我突然得了一生中最严重的腹泻,持续了10天。不能睡觉,吃东西,喝饮料,我整晚在地板上踱来踱去,然后在10天后仍然有一些腹泻,但胃咕噜咕噜地失去控制,我病得快死了,不想去看医生,因为我们被封锁了。它总共只持续了大约5周!读了这篇文章后,我真的觉得我可能感染了病毒!!有什么想法?

  5. 在没有典型的干扰素的细胞的情况下,在感染细胞中激活干扰素刺激基因(在您的有机体系统中是真实的?)提供了这些细胞作为许多Covid-19患者中出现的极端细胞因子释放的额外来源的证据。

  6. 先测试一下这些,别吃药了。

    政府和所谓的医疗当局正在寻找大型制药公司的盈利疗法。我刚刚给出了我的个人计划

    所有这些药物都可以一起服用:锌30-40mg +槲皮素500- 1000mg和/或EGCG 600-700mg——这些药物在2014年被证明与奎宁药物一样有效;二叔丁基苯乙烯扰乱病毒的脂质外壳,使其向免疫系统开放;大剂量的维生素C——我每天服用5000毫克维生素C,但如果生病的话,我会服用多达20000毫克甚至更多。莱纳斯·鲍林做了大量的初步研究;而在医疗办公室,由于护士使用一些简单的设备,就可以进行光致发光(紫外光)治疗。致命而且对微生物非常有效。这些可以很好地处理显性疾病。在先进的医疗办公室里如果他们有高压氧舱,我会很乐意躺在里面45分钟因为氧气已经饱和进入身体。这种水平有助于治疗其他疾病,但对病毒来说是致命的。这一切都绰绰有余了。

  7. 二月,我从新加坡出差回来。当时马来西亚的情况还不是很严重。之后我腹泻了4天,我想知道发生了什么。然后我在电视上看到一位来自新加坡的著名医生说,如果你有腹泻,这可能是一种症状,但没有多少人这么说。在那之后我感觉很好,我仍然在想我是不是在新加坡的时候感染了病毒而没有意识到。

  8. @乔治成立的

    莱纳斯·鲍林的研究你是对的。然而,每个人都应该记住以下几点,尤其是现在新冠疫情仍在蔓延:有很多虚假的声音在努力转移公众对维生素C治疗价值的注意力,以及鲍林关于维生素C补充剂的VALID研究被数据扭曲和谎言“伪造”的事实,几十年来,作为一个人(两个诺贝尔奖得主),他一直被犯罪医学机构及其无数庸医、走狗、无知者和巨魔诽谤为一些被蛊惑的白痴,这种诽谤至今仍在继续——搜索学术报告“两个大谎言:没有维生素的好处和补充是非常危险的”,Rolf Hefti(正分子医学新闻组织的出版作者)。

    但你不能用谎言来质疑事实。这只会暴露和诋毁说谎者(见上文引用)。

  9. 罗恩·麦克卡尼|2020年12月17日晚8:32|回复

    https://www.facebook.com/ron.mccune.3看看哥伦士城和其他关注的其他主题还有什么要说的。我认为当一个人腹泻时,可能是由很多东西引起的,比如你吃的东西。当一个人感染病毒并腹泻时,我相信身体会进入一种防御模式,试图清除肠道中任何可能对你有害的分子,当你经历腹泻发作时。身体清理你的肠子,把肠子里的东西排出体外。然而,腹泻只能以如此快的速度清理你的肠道,冠状病毒可能仍然会在肠道中藏匿,并在肠道中繁殖。所以如果我们尽可能多地排出水肿来尽可能多地冲洗肠道会怎样。如果有办法将水和药物混合,可以帮助杀死冠状病毒,通过口腔,使肠道多次被冲出来,并装载抗冠状病毒的药物。然后在直肠手术和咽喉手术中发送紫外线,他们会检查你的上下消化系统来杀死病毒。如果可能的话,也用紫外线照射鼻子、喉咙、肺。不知道这是否可行,但如果可行,那就去做吧! So why don’t we try to help along the body’s strategy of cleaning out the digestive system and do what we can to kill the coronavirus in the respiratory tract then maybe the coronavirus infected person will have an easier time dealing with this coronavirus or other illnesses if it have. When you look at those that got ill in more severe ways that others you see that just about all were overweight. That meant that the coronavirus have forever to multiply and an abundance of molecules to attach it’s offsprings onto so to say. I don’t know how to say all this medical stuff but you get the picture. So completely flushing out the intestines would certainly empty out many coronavirus molecules out of a body! Then if we were to give a large amount of this recipe called Adelynn’s Miracle Beans recipe and diet plan only we would be able to also induce the body to keep it’s intestines empty as the body then starts to get its energy from the energy stored in one’s veins! However in the recipe ONLY use beans and not noodles, rice or other filler foods. You don’t want to introduce energy food at this time into the intestines. You want the body to starve itself into making your bodies vascular system to have to go into overdrive to create energy because you have successfully dried up the stored energy capabilities in the stomach and vascular system. The blood system will then have to get to work getting energy from a vein network with less fats which should cause the patient to get better because the intestines and veins will have less of the coronavirus in it! Once that happens then the coronaviruses in the vein network will have to be used and will result I believe in less coronavirus in the bloodstream. I believe that as the bloodstream pumps blood throughout your body it goes through your cleaning biological systems such as your liver. Maybe as the blood goes through these blood cleaning system the coronavirus strength in the body is lessen somehow. That seems to be so because most of the people who died or got seriously sick from the coronavirus were overweight. So the amount of the virus in the body, the weight of the body fat content and the time it sits in the blood system and digestive systems are tell tale signs of many! The fact that others that aren’t overweight are getting sick too may be caused by the coronavirus entering the nose area and easily making its way into the brain area where it causes ills of different sorts. Also others that aren’t overweight and also are young that get seriously sick seem to me to be mostly thin people. That has to say something! Maybe this virus is highjacking it’s way around the bodies many parts and somehow latched onto an area in the body that allowed the coronavirus to do harm. Perhaps also giving sick patients massive amounts of vitamins along with the Adelynn’s Miracle Beans would give their bodies more ability to get better because Adelynn’s Miracle Beans recipe has all of the 9 different amino acids to make all the proteins of many different kinds of many different human cells of all kinds! Give the body all the complete protein and vitamins in large quantities and let’s see what the human body can do to save us from the miseries we face!

  10. 罗恩·麦克卡尼|2020年12月17日晚8:34|回复

    我认为当一个人腹泻时,可能是由很多东西引起的,比如你吃的东西。当一个人感染病毒并腹泻时,我相信身体会进入一种防御模式,试图清除肠道中任何可能对你有害的分子,当你经历腹泻发作时。身体清理你的肠子,把肠子里的东西排出体外。然而,腹泻只能以如此快的速度清理你的肠道,冠状病毒可能仍然会在肠道中藏匿,并在肠道中繁殖。所以如果我们尽可能多地排出水肿来尽可能多地冲洗肠道会怎样。如果有办法将水和药物混合,可以帮助杀死冠状病毒,通过口腔,使肠道多次被冲出来,并装载抗冠状病毒的药物。然后在直肠手术和咽喉手术中发送紫外线,他们会检查你的上下消化系统来杀死病毒。如果可能的话,也用紫外线照射鼻子、喉咙、肺。不知道这是否可行,但如果可行,那就去做吧!所以我们为什么不试着沿着身体的策略帮助清理消化系统和做我们可以杀死冠状病毒在呼吸道冠状病毒感染者可能就会有一段轻松的时间处理这个冠状病毒或其他疾病。 When you look at those that got ill in more severe ways that others you see that just about all were overweight. That meant that the coronavirus have forever to multiply and an abundance of molecules to attach it’s offsprings onto so to say. I don’t know how to say all this medical stuff but you get the picture. So completely flushing out the intestines would certainly empty out many coronavirus molecules out of a body! Then if we were to give a large amount of this recipe called Adelynn’s Miracle Beans recipe and diet plan only we would be able to also induce the body to keep it’s intestines empty as the body then starts to get its energy from the energy stored in one’s veins! However in the recipe ONLY use beans and not noodles, rice or other filler foods. You don’t want to introduce energy food at this time into the intestines. You want the body to starve itself into making your bodies vascular system to have to go into overdrive to create energy because you have successfully dried up the stored energy capabilities in the stomach and vascular system. The blood system will then have to get to work getting energy from a vein network with less fats which should cause the patient to get better because the intestines and veins will have less of the coronavirus in it! Once that happens then the coronaviruses in the vein network will have to be used and will result I believe in less coronavirus in the bloodstream. I believe that as the bloodstream pumps blood throughout your body it goes through your cleaning biological systems such as your liver. Maybe as the blood goes through these blood cleaning system the coronavirus strength in the body is lessen somehow. That seems to be so because most of the people who died or got seriously sick from the coronavirus were overweight. So the amount of the virus in the body, the weight of the body fat content and the time it sits in the blood system and digestive systems are tell tale signs of many! The fact that others that aren’t overweight are getting sick too may be caused by the coronavirus entering the nose area and easily making its way into the brain area where it causes ills of different sorts. Also others that aren’t overweight and also are young that get seriously sick seem to me to be mostly thin people. That has to say something! Maybe this virus is highjacking it’s way around the bodies many parts and somehow latched onto an area in the body that allowed the coronavirus to do harm. Perhaps also giving sick patients massive amounts of vitamins along with the Adelynn’s Miracle Beans would give their bodies more ability to get better because Adelynn’s Miracle Beans recipe has all of the 9 different amino acids to make all the proteins of many different kinds of many different human cells of all kinds! Give the body all the complete protein and vitamins in large quantities and let’s see what the human body can do to save us from the miseries we face!

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