Two studies report newHomo sapiens化石Bacho Ki的网站ro Cave in Bulgaria. “The Bacho Kiro Cave site provides evidence for the first dispersal ofH. sapiensacross the mid-latitudes of Eurasia. Pioneer groups brought new behaviors into Europe and interacted with local Neanderthals. This early wave largely predates that which led to their final extinction in western Europe 8,000 years later,” says Jean-Jacques Hublin, director at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany.
An international research team, led by Jean-Jacques Hublin, Tsenka Tsanova and Shannon McPherron of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, and Nikolay Sirakov and Svoboda Sirakova of the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia, Bulgaria, renewed excavations at Bacho Kiro Cave in 2015. The most spectacular finds come from a rich, dark layer near the base of the deposits. Here the team uncovered thousands of animal bones, stone and bone tools, beads and pendants, and the remains of five human fossils.
Except for one human tooth, the human fossils were too fragmented to be recognized by their appearance. Instead, they were identified by analyzing their protein sequences. “Most Pleistocene bones are so fragmented that by eye, one cannot tell which species of animal they represent. However, the proteins differ slightly in their amino酸sequence from species to species. By using protein mass spectrometry, we can therefore quickly identify those bone specimens that represent otherwise unrecognizable human bones,” says Frido Welker, Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the University of Copenhagen and research associate at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology.
To know the age of these fossils and the deposits at Bacho Kiro Cave, the team worked closely with Lukas Wacker at ETH Zurich, Switzerland, using an accelerator mass spectrometer to produce ages with higher precision than normal and to directly date the human bones.
“The majority of animal bones we dated from this distinctive, dark layer have signs of human impacts on the bone surfaces, such as butchery marks, which, along with the direct dates of human bones, provides us with a really clear chronological picture of whenHomo sapiens首先占据了这座洞穴，在45,820至43,650年前的间隔，潜在于46,940年前，“Max Planck进化人类学研究所的Helen少数人说。“Bacho Kiro Cave的Radiocarbon日期不仅是一个由研究团队制造的单个古石网站的最大数据集，而且还是错误范围内最精确的，”研究人员Sahra Talamo从博洛尼亚和伯尔尼大学来自莱比锡最大普朗克研究所的克罗姆勒。
Though some researchers have suggested thatHomo sapiensmay have already occasionally entered Europe by this time, finds of this age are typically attributed to Neanderthals. To know which group of humans were present at Bacho Kiro Cave, Mateja Hajdinjak and Matthias Meyer of the genetics team led by Svante Pääbo at the Department of Evolutionary Genetics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology sequenced theDNAfrom the fragmented fossils bones.
“鉴于摩尔溶液中的特异性良好的DNA保存和通过蛋白质质谱法鉴定的母蛋白片段，我们能够从七个标本中的六个中重建完全线粒体基因组，并将来自所有七个标本的回收的线粒体DNA序列属性属于现代人类。有趣的是，当将这些MTDNA与其他古老的人类的人联系起来时，我落在撒哈拉以外以外的当今人们的三个主要人士的三个主要人士的群体的MTDNA序列。此外，他们的遗传日期几乎与RadioCarbon获得的那些完全一致，“伦敦弗朗西斯克里克研究所的博士后研究所Mateja Hajdinjak，Max Planck Ithropology研究所的研究助理。
The results demonstrate thatHomo sapiensentered Europe and began impacting Neanderthals by around 45,000 years ago and likely even earlier. They brought into Bacho Kiro Cave high quality flint from sources up to 180 km from the site which they worked into tools like pointed blades perhaps to hunt and very likely to butcher the remains of the animals found at the site.
“The animal remains from the site illustrate a mix of cold and warm adapted species, with bison and red deer most frequent,” says paleontologist Rosen Spasov from the New Bulgarian University. These were butchered extensively but were also used as a raw material source. “The most remarkable aspect of the faunal assemblage is the extensive collection of bone tools and personal ornaments,” says zooarchaeologist Geoff Smith from the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. Cave bear teeth were made into pendants, some of which are strikingly similar to ornaments later made by Neanderthals in western Europe.
Homo sapiensreplaced Neanderthals
在一起，Bacho Kiro洞穴沉积物在古石正式的奥安德特人被上古二刻取代时，欧洲的一段时间Homo sapiens（所谓的过渡期）和第一个Homo sapiens组装是考古学家称之为初始上部旧石器时代的原因。“到目前为止，Aurignacian被认为是欧洲上部旧石器时代的开始，但是距离Bacho Kiro Cave的初始旧石器时为欧亚西亚西部的其他网站Homo sapiens，” notes Nikolay Sirakov of the National Institute of Archaeology with Museum at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences.
“The Initial Upper Paleolithic in Bacho Kiro Cave is the earliest known Upper Palaeolithic in Europe. It represents a new way of making stone tools and new sets of behavior including manufacturing personal ornaments that are a departure from what we know of Neanderthals up to this time,” says Tsenka Tsanova of the Department of Human Evolution at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. “The Initial Upper Paleolithic probably has its origin in southwest Asia and soon after can be found from Bacho Kiro Cave in Bulgaria to sites in Mongolia asHomo sapiensrapidly dispersed across Eurasia and encountered, influenced, and eventually replaced existing archaic populations of Neanderthals and Denisovans.”
For more on this research, readEarliest Modern Artifacts in Europe – Blade-Like Tools and Teeth Pendants – Were Created by Homo Sapiens。
“由Bacho Kiro Cave，保加利亚的初始古石同性恋者Sapiens”由Jean-Jacques Hublin，Nikolay Sirakov，Vera Aldeias，Shara Bailey，Edouard Bard，Vincent Delvigne，Elena Endarova，Yoann Fagault，Helen Temlass，Mateja Hajdinjak，Bernd Kromer，伯纳克罗姆勒，伊里昂Krumov，JoãoMarreiros，Naomi L. Martisius，Lindsey Pastulin，Virginie Sinet-Mathiot，Matthias Meyer，SvantePääbo，Vasil波波夫，Zeljko Rezek，Svoboda Sirakova，Matthew M. Skinner，Geoff M. Skis，Rosen Spasov，Sahra Talamo，Thibaut金枪鱼，卢卡斯瓦克，弗里文韦尔克，arndt wilcke，Nikolay Zahariev，Shannon P. McPherron和Tsenka Tsanova，2020年5月11日，自然。
“A14.C年间到上层古石英洞穴，保加利亚上层古石英渡过渡，海伦几年，沙拉塔拉姆，卢卡斯瓦克，伯尔尼克罗姆勒，三丝瓜，yoann果实，埃德拉德·贝加尔，香农·麦克尔龙，维拉阿尔德省，拉奎莱亚，纳米L. Martisius，Lindsay Paskulin，Zeljko Rezek，Virginie Sinet-Mathiot，Svoboda Sirakova，Geoffrey M. Smith，Rosen Spacov，Frido Welker，Nikolay Sirakov，Tsenka Tsanova和Jean-Jacques Hublin，2020年5月11日，自然生态和进化。
DOI：10.1038 / S41559-020-1136-3